Changing International Politics on the Korean Peninsula: from Geo-politics to Geo-economics
Professor and Chair, Department of Diplomacy,
National Chengchi University
Traditionally, international politics on the Korean peninsula has been strategically oriented. Nevertheless, the axis of international politics on the Korean peninsula has shifted from geo-politics to geoeconomics, due largely to the emergence of Chinese leader Xi Jinping. In this paper, the author explores reasons behind this policy change and its implications for the two Koreas, Japan, Taiwan, and Northeast Asia as a whole.
With his goal of making the Sino-U.S. condominium into reality through a new type of big powers relationship, Xi Jinping has decided to make a strategic move by shifting the axis of international politics on the Korean peninsula from geo-politics to geo-economics, exemplified by Xi’s trip to Seoul and his agreement with Park Geun-hye to sign a mainland China-South Korea FTA by the end of this year. This strategic change is intended to enhance the era of the G2 in the coming APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation) summit slated for November 10-11 this year through their joint promotion of the FTAAP (Free Trade Area of the Asia Pacific).
Keywords: Mainland China, South Korea, FTA, North Korea, Japan, Taiwan
Analysis of, and Prospects for, Neighborhood Policy between Mainland China and Russia
Associate Professor, Department of Diplomacy,
National Chengchi University
Chinese neighborhood policy lasts for a long time. Neighboring nations paid tribute to China in a tributary system in exchange for bilateral security. In 1953 the goals of mainland China’s diplomacy were formulated as “Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence.” When mainland China began reforms in 1978, its economy started to grow rapidly. But relationships with its neighbors were not so steady. For instance there were territorial disputes over Bolshoi Ussuriysky Island (Heixiazi Dao) and in the border area between mainland China and India. To stabilize its economic development, mainland China adopted a neighborhood policy, pursuing coexistence and multi interests with neighboring nations. The territorial dispute over Bolshoi Ussuriysky Island(Heixiazi Dao) was resolved by bilateral compromise. This paper reviews Chinese foreign policy toward Russia from the perspective of the ancient Chinese tribute system and the modern neighborhood policy.
Keywords: Neighborhood Policy, Tributary System, Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, Shanghai Cooperation Organization
Assessment and Analysis of Mainland China’s Neighborhood Policy for Central Asian Countries
Professor, Graduate Institute of European Studies,
In October 2013, mainland China held its first “Neighborhood Diplomacy Conference” in Beijing, where President Xi Jinping proposed the neighborhood diplomacy policy of friendliness, sincerity, benefit, and inclusiveness, in order to build stable and harmonious surroundings. Nevertheless, under the policy of returning to Asia, the U.S. constantly ropes in the neighboring countries of mainland China to jointly boycott mainland China. In consideration of its geostrategic security and urgent need for energy, mainland China has proactively built diplomatic relations with Central Asian countries and has strengthened the neighbor diplomacy policy of political mutual trust, mutually beneficial economic and trade relations, counterterrorism cooperation, and cultural exchanges for many years. As a result, mainland China has had an increasing influence on Central Asian countries.
Keywords: Good Neighbor Policy, Central Asia, Geostrategic, Neighboring Diplomacy, Silk Road Economic Zone
Mainland China’s Policies toward South Asia: Evaluation and Interpretation
Director of Center for Strategic Studies on South Asia and the Middle East;
Associate Professor at Graduate Institute of International Politics,
National Chung Hsing University
Mainland China’s policies in South Asia emanate from the need to maintain a favorable external environment that helps consolidate its crucial lines of communications into the Indian Ocean region while weaving a web of effective economic as well as military ties with certain countries in the region. Similarly, mainland China’s geostrategies in South Asia are also informed by its need to secure and integrate the troubled peripheral areas Xinjiang and Tibet, as some pro-independence activists from both regions have found refuge in these countries. By building communication and commercial lines in economically weak but strategically viable areas of South Asia, mainland China attempts to maintain effective control over its western periphery and to expand its influence into the Indian Ocean. This paper examines and evaluates mainland China’s relations with each South Asian country with the purpose of seeing whether it has achieved its goal of building “good and friendly” relationships in South Asia, and of assessing how mainland China’s good-neighbor policy is received and interpreted in this region.
Keywords: Mainland China’s Policies toward South Asia, Mainland China-India Relations, Mainland China-Pakistan Relations, Mainland China-Bangladesh Relations, Mainland China-Sri Lanka Relations, Mainland China-Nepal Relations
Review of Beijing’s Neighborhood Policy: Analysis of, and Prospects for, Relations between Mainland China and ASEAN Countries
Associate Professor,Department of International Affairs and Business,
With its rapid rise after the Cold War, mainland China regards a peaceful and stable global environment not only as a stabilizer for development, but also as an important foundation for the country to promote connection and integration with the international politicaleconomic system. Towards ASEAN, Beijing’s policy under Hu Jintao and Wen Jiabao promoted the concept of a “harmonious worldview” to counter the impression of a “China threat”; under Xi Jinping and Li Keqiang, Beijing promotes the concept of a “community of common destiny.” Beijing hopes to improve its relations with ASEAN countries through bilateral and multilateral approaches under the policy of “good neighbor diplomacy,” in order to reduce security threats and construct a regional environment favorable for economic development. However, Beijing has actively sought various bilateral and multilateral initiatives with ASEAN and the establishment of bilateral free trade agreements. With traditional security problems not easy to resolve, mainland China hopes to strengthen cooperation with ASEAN in the realm of non-traditional security. This paper aims to provide an explanation and review of mainland China’s policy toward ASEAN countries and a rough sketch of future developments.
Keywords: Mainland China, ASEAN, Neighborhood Policy, Peripheral Diplomacy, South China Sea