Two-Level International Socialization and China's Environmental Policy: The Nu River Dam Debate

  • Date:2018-12-07

Taiwan Social Sciences Citation Index(TSSCI)

Prospect Quarterly Vol.19 No.4 (October 2018)

Two-Level International Socialization and China's Environmental Policy: The Nu River Dam Debate

Source: Joan Wang, pixabay, <>;Salween Watch, InternationalRivers, <>.


Two-Level International Socialization and China's Environmental Policy: The Nu River Dam Debate 

Chi-ming Wang
Professor, Department of Political Science,
Tunghai University
 Wan-yu Chen
Ph. D. Candidate, Graduate Institute of International Politics,
National Chung Hsing University

        This article is a study on China's environmental policy. First, we try to use two-level international socialization that includes both the international and domestic levels to revise the international socialization model. Then we focus on the transition in China's environmental policy. Finally in the case study, we examine the gap between central policy and local practice through a two-level international socialization model. International socialization is a western political theory which holds that public opinion has a great influence on a government. In contrast, China is restricted by its one-party dictatorship. The Nu River dam debate is regarded as a model where Chinese NGOs successfully participated in government decision-making. Furthermore, following the Nu River dam debate, Chinese NGOs have gained influence through public awareness and participation. They have also become a medium that integrates the influence of the international community.

Keywords:International Socialization, Nu River Dam Debate, Climate Change, China's Environmental Policy, Complex Socialization



A Study of the Impact of National Adaptation Programmes of Action on the Sustainable Development of Least Developed Countries 

Yueh-pang Fu
Associate Professor, Department of Public Administration and Management,
Chinese Culture University

        National Adaptation Programmes of Action are climate change adaptation programmes to help implementation of the goal of sustainable development in the evaluation and priority projects of vulnerable domestic sectors in Least Developed Countries. The findings show that the higher the vulnerability such as "remoteness", "merchandise export concentration", "share of agriculture, hunting, forestry and fishing in GDP", "instability of exports of goods and services", "under-five mortality rate", "percentage of population undernourished" of countries, the lower programme projects/costs are implemented/allocated, highlighting the limitations of technical capabilities and funding resources in these countries.

Keywords:LDC Work Programme, National Adaptation Programmes of Action, Least Developed Countries, Sustainable Development, Vulnerability



An Analysis of the Governance Structure in Japan's Ainu/Indigenous Policy 

Morgan Chih-tung Huang
Associate Professor, Department of Public Administration,
National Open University

        Echoing the passage of the UN's Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, the Japanese Parliament finally adopted a historic resolution in 2008 calling for the recognition of the Ainu as an indigenous people. As Japan often considers itself as a "homogenous state," this resolution marked a turning point in its Ainu policies. Using detailed exposition of policy theories in tandem with fieldwork in Hokkaido, Japan, this article seeks to reveal the processes that have led to its current governance structure. It argues that, unlike the UN's rights-based approach, Japan adopted a unique "process-based approach" where there is an element of ambiguity, that is, the language in governmental statements and legislation has been ambiguously worded to avoid conflict with mainstream society. Also, rather than a simple importation of international measures, the Japanese Government and scholars alike put enormous effort into the indigenization of indigenous concepts and policies. Countries which have adopted the rights-based approach, such as Taiwan, may learn from Japan's experience.

Keywords:Indigenous Peoples, The Ainu, The United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, Indigenous Policies in Japan, Governance Structure 



  • Update:2019-03-06